Prof. Dr. Christian Borgemeister

Research themes
  • Agriculture, land use, climate change
  • Health
Additional Information:
Professional experience

Christian Borgemeister is an entomologist, with a PhD from Leibniz University Hannover (LUH), Germany. He joined ZEF as Professor and Director of the Department of Ecology and Natural Resources Management in October 2013. Prior to that he was the Director General of icipe, the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, a pan-African R&D Centre headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya (from 2005-2013). Between 1998 and 2005 he served as a faculty member of Justus-Liebig University Giessen and LUH, and from 1992 to 1998 as a scientist at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). His research focuses on biological control and integrated pest management (IPM) in the tropics for improved food security, and vector control of infectious diseases like malaria as part of a One Health approach. He has authored and co-authored > 120 papers in peer-reviewed journals, co-edited a book on the history of biological control in Africa, and contributed chapters to several scientific books. He is a Fellow of the African Academy of Sciences, the Royal Entomological Society, the Entomological Society of America, and a member of several national and international academic organisations (more details refer to CV and publication list).


Genscherallee 3

53113 Bonn, Germany

phone: +49 228731866



Aidoo, O.W., C.M. Tanga, S.A. Mohamed, F. Khamis, B.A. Rasowo, J. Ambo, M. Sétamou, S. Ekesi and C. Borgemeister.  2021.  Temperature‐based phenology model of African citrus triozid (Trioza erytreae Del Guercio): Vector of citrus greening disease.  Journal of Applied Entomology, DOI: 10.1111/jen.12942   .
Schader, C., A. Heidenreich, I. Kadzere, I.S. Egyir, A. Muriuki, J. Bandanaa, J.K. Clottey, J. Ndungu, C. Grovermann, G. Lazzarini, J. Blockeel, C. Borgemeister, A. Müller, F. Kabi, K.K.M. Fiaboe, N. Adamtey, B. Huber, U. Niggli and M. Scholze..  2021.  How is organic farming performing agronomically and economically in sub-Saharan Africa?.  Global Environmental Change., . (Open Access)   Further Information


Guimapi, R.A., Mohamed, S.A., Ekesi, S., Biber-Freudenberger, L., Borgemeister, C. & H. Tonnang.  2020.  Optimizing spatial positioning of traps in the context of integrated pest management..  Ecological Complexity, 41   . Review


Aidoo, O.W., C.M. Tanga, S.A. Mohamed, B.A. Rasowo, F.M. Khamis, I. Rwomushana, J. Kimnai, A.K. Agyakwa, S. Daisy, M. Sétamou, S. Ekesi, and C. Borgemeister.  2019.  Distribution, degree of damage and risk of spread of Trioza erytreae (Hemiptera: Triozidae), in Kenya.  Journal of Applied Entomology, . Review
Aidoo, O.W., Tanga, C.M., Paris, T.M., Allan, S.A., Mohamed, S.A., Khamis, F.M., Sétamou, M., Borgemeister, C. and S. Ekesi.  2019.  Size and shape analysis of Trioza erytreae Del Guercio (Hemiptera: Triozidae), vector of citrus huanglongbing disease.  Pest. Manag. Sc., 75   : 760-771   . Review
Amouzou, K.A., Lamers, J.P.A., Naab, J.B., Borgemeister, C., Vlek, P.L.G. & M. Becker.  2019.  Climate change impact on water- and nitrogen-use efficiencies and yields of maize and sorghum in the northern Benin dry savanna, West Africa.  Field Crops Research, 235 (1)   : 104-117   . Review
Amouzou, K.A., Naab, J.B., Lamers, J.P.A., Borgemeister, C., Becker, M., & P.L.G. Vlek.  2019.  CROPGRO-Cotton model for determining climate change impacts on yield, water- and N- use efficiencies of cotton in the Dry Savanna of West Africa.  Agricultural Systems, 165   : 85-96   . Further Information
Anthonj, C., B. Diekkrüger, C. Borgemeister and T. Kistemann.  2019.  Health risk perceptions and local knowledge of water-related infectious disease exposure among Kenyan wetland communities.  Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 222 (1)   : 34-48   . Further Information
Matias, D.M.S., Borgemeister, C., Sémah, A.-M. H. von Wehrden.  2019.  The Role of Linked Social-Ecological Systems in a Mobile Agent-Based Ecosystem Service from Giant Honey Bees (Apis dorsata) in an Indigenous Community Forest in Palawan, Philippines.  Human Ecology, 47   : 905-915   . Review
Rasowo, B.A., Khamis, F.M., Mohamed, S.A., Ajene, I.J., Aidoo, O.F., Ombura, L., Sétamou, M., Ekesi, S. and C. Borgemeister.  2019.  African Citrus Greening Disease in East Africa: Incidence, Severity, and Distribution Patterns.  Journal of Economic Entomology, . Review
Shulla, K., Leal Filho, W., Lardjane, S., Sommer, J.-H., Lange Salvia, A. & C. Borgemeister.  2019.  The contribution of Regional Centers of Expertise for the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.  Journal of Cleaner Production, . Review
Shumo, M., Khamis, F.M., Tanga, C.M., Fiaboe, K.K.M., Subramanian, S., Ekesi, S., van Huis, A. & C. Borgemeister.  2019.  The influence of temperature on selected life-history traits of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) reared on two common urban organic waste streams in Kenya.  Animals, 9 (3)   : 79   . Further Information
Shumo, M., Osuga, I.M., Khamis, F.M., Tanga, C.M., Fiaboe, K.M.K., Subramanian, S., Ekesi, S., van Huis, A. & C. Borgemeister.  2019.  The nutritive value of black soldier fly larvae reared on common organic waste streams in Kenya.  Scientific Reports, . (Open Access)   Review
Tchouassi, D.P., M. Marklewitz, E. Chepkorir, F. Zirkel, S.B. Agha, C.C. Tigoi, E. Koskei, C. Drosten, C. Borgemeister, B. Torto, S. Junglen, and R. Sang.  2019.  Sand Fly Associated Phlebovirus with Evidence of Neutralizing Antibodies in Humans, Kenya.  Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25 (4)   : 681-690   . Further Information


Aidoo, O.W., C.M. Tanga, F.M. Khamis, B.A. Rasowo, S.A. Mohamed, B.K. Badii, D.Salifu, S. Eksi and C. Borgemeister.  2018.  Host suitability and feeding preference of the African citrus triozid Trioza erytreae Del Guercio (Hemiptera: Triozidae), natural vector of “Candidatus Liberibacter africanus”.  J. Appl. Ent., : 1-9   . Further Information
Akoto, D., Denich, M., Partey, S., Frith, O., Kwaku, M., Mensah, A. & C. Borgemeister.  2018.  Socioeconomic Indicators of Bamboo Use for Agroforestry Development in the Dry Semi-Deciduous Forest Zone of Ghana.  Sustainability, 10 (7)   : 2324   . Further Information
Amouzou, K.A., Naab, J.B., Lamers, J.P.A., Borgemeister, C., Becker, M. & P.L.G. Vlek.  2018.  CROPGRO-Cotton model for determining climate change impacts on yield, water- and N- use efficiencies of cotton in the Dry Savanna of West Africa.  Agricultural Systems, 165   : 85-96   . Further Information
Benefoh, D.T., Villamor, G.B., van Noordwijk, M., Borgemeister, C., Asante, W.A., & K.O. Asubonteng.  2018.  Assessing land-use typologies and change intensities in a structurally complex Ghanaian cocoa landscape.  Applied Geography, 99   : 109-119   .
Betancur-Corredor, B., Loaiza-Usuga, J.C., Denich, M. & C. Borgemeister.  2018.  Gold mining as a potential driver of development in Colombia: Challenges and opportunities.  Journal of Cleaner Production, 199   : 538-553   .
Kamau, J.W., Stellmacher, T., Biber-Freudenberger, L. & C Borgemeister.  2018.  Organic and conventional agriculture in Kenya: A typology of smallholder farms in Kajiado and Murang'a counties.  Journal of Rural Studies, 5   : 171-185   .
Kamau, J.W., Stellmacher, T., Biber-Freudenberger, L., Borgemeister, C. & J. Lamers.  2018.  Organic and conventional agriculture in Kenya.  Applied Soil Ecology, (in press)   .
Kyalo, R., E. Abdel-Rahman, S. Mohamed, S. Ekesi, C. Borgemeister and T. Landmann.  2018.  Importance of Remotely-Sensed Vegetation Variables for Predicting the Spatial Distribution of African Citrus Triozid (Trioza erytreae) in Kenya.  ISPRS - International Journal of Geo-Information, (in press)   .
Matias, D.M.S., Borgemeister, C. & H. von Wehrden.  2018.  Ecological changes and local knowledge in a giant honey bee (Apis dorsata F.) hunting community in Palawan, Philippines.  Ambio, .
Matias, D.M.S., Tambo, J.A., Stellmacher, T., Borgemeister, C. & H. von Wehrden.  2018.  Commercializing traditional non-timber forest products: An integrated value chain analysis of honey from giant honey bees in Palawan, Philippines.  Forest Policy and Economics, 97   : 223-231   . Further Information
Muchemi, S.K., C.P.W. Zebitz, C. Borgemeister, K.S. Akutse, C.N. Foba, S. Ekesi and K.K.M. Fiaboe.  2018.  Acceptability and suitability of three Liriomyza species as host for the endoparasitoid Halticoptera arduine (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Journal of Environmental Entomology, 111 (3)   : 1137-1143   .
Muchemi, S.K., C.P.W. Zebitz, C. Borgemeister, K.S. Akutse, C.N. Foba, S. Ekesi and K.K.M. Fiaboe.  2018.  Interaction between Chrysocharis flacilla and Diglyphus isaea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), two parasitoids of Liriomyza Leafminers.  Journal of Economic Entomology, .
Muchemi, S.K., Zebitz, C.P.W., Borgemeister, C., Akutse, K.S., Foba, C.N., Ekesi, S. & K.K.M. Fiaboe.  2018.  Acceptability and Suitability of Three Liriomyza Leafminer Species as Host for the Endoparasitoid Chrysocharis flacilla (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).  Journal of Economic Entomology, (in press)   .
Muchemi, S.K., Zebitz, C.P.W., Borgemeister, C., Akutse, K.S., Foba, C.N., Ekesi, S. and K.K.M. Fiaboe.  2018.  Interaction between two leafminer parasitoids, Halticoptera arduine (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Diglyphus isaea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), in the management of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae).  Journal of Environmental Entomology, (in press)   .
Nyang’au, I.M. Kelboro, G., Hornidge, A.-K., Midega, C.A.O. & C. Borgemeister.  2018.  Transdisciplinary Research: Collaborative Leadership and Empowerment Towards Sustainability of Push–Pull Technology.  Sustainability, 10   : 2378   .


Callo-Concha, D., Denich, M., Lamers, J.P.A.,. Schwachula, A., Hornidge, A.-K., Khamzina, A. and C. Borgemeister.  2017.  Bridging science and development: lessons learnt from two decades of development research.  Agroforestry Systems, 91   : 799-810. DOI 10.1007/s10457-016-0008-y   .
Khamis, F.M., Rwomushana, I., Ombura, L.O., Cook, G., Mohamed, S.A., Tanga, C.M., Nderitu, P.W., Borgemeister, C., Sétamou, M., Grout, T.G., & S. Ekesi.  2017.  DNA Barcode Reference Library for the African Citrus Triozid, Trioza erytreae (Hemiptera: Triozidae): Vector of African Citrus Greening.  Journal of Economic Entomology , 110 (6)   : 2673-2646   .
Khamis, F.M., Rwomushana, I.L., Ombura,, O., Cook,, G. Mohamed,, S.A., Tanga, C.M., Nderitu, P. W., Borgemeister, C., Sétamou, M., Grout, T.G. and S. Ekesi.  2017.  DNA Barcode Reference Library for the African Citrus Triozid, Trioza erytreae (Hemiptera: Triozidae): Vector of African Citrus Greening..  Journal of Economic Entomology, : 1-10   .
Kyalo, R., Abdel-Rahman, E., Subramanian, S., Nyasani, J., Thiel, M., Jozani, H., Borgemeister, C. and T. Landmann.  2017.  Maize cropping systems mapping using RapidEye observations in highly fragmented agro-ecological landscapes in Kenya.  Sensors, 17   : 2537   .
Matias, D.M.S., Borgemeister, C. & H. von Wehrden.  2017.  Thinking beyond Western commercial honeybee hives: towards improved conservation of honey bee diversity.  Biodivers. Conserv, : DOI 10.1007/s10531-017-1404-y   .
Matias, D.M.S., Leventon, J., Rau, A.-L., Borgemeister, C. & H. von Wehrden.  2017.  A review of ecosystem service benefits from wild bees across social contexts.  Ambio, : DOI 10.1007/s13280-016-0844-z   .
Matias, D.M.S., Stellmacher, T., Borgemeister, C., Cayron, J.G. & H. von Wehrden.  2017.  Mapping giant honey bee nests in Palawan, Philippines through a transdisciplinary approach.  Development in Practice, 27 (7)   : 903–912   .
Rwomushana I, F. Khamis, T.G. Grout, S.A. Mohamed, M. Setamou, C. Borgemeister, H.M. Heya, C. Tanga, P.W. Nderitu, Z.S. Seguni, C.L. Materu and S. Ekesi.  2017.  Detection of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in Kenya and potential implication for the spread of Huanglongbing disease in East Africa.  Biological Invasions, 10.1007/s10530-017-1502-5   .
Saini, R.K., B.O. Orindi, N. Mbahin, J.A. Andoke, P.N. Muasa, D.M. Mbuvi, C.A. Muya, J.A. Pickett and C. Borgemeiste.  2017.  Protecting cows in small holder farms in East Africa from tsetse flies by mimicking the odor profile of a non- host bovid.  PLoS NTD , 11 (10)   . Further Information
Tonnang, H.E.Z., Hervé, B.D.B., Freudenberger, L.B., Salifu, D., Subramanian, S., Ngowi, V.B., Anani, B., Moukam Kakmeni, F.M., Affognon, H., Saliou Niassy, S., Landmann, T.O., Ndjomatchoua, F.T., Pedro, S.A., Johansson, T., Tanga, C.M., Nana, P., Fia.  2017.  Advances in crop insect modelling methods – towards a whole system approach (a review).  Ecological Modelling, 354   : 88-103   .


Biber-Freudenberger, L., Ziemacki, J., Tonnang, HEZ and C. Borgemeister.  2016.  Future risks of pest species under changing climatic conditions.  PLoS ONE, 11 (4)   : 17   . (Open Access)   Further Information
Ekesi, S., De Meyer, M., Mohamed, S.A., Virgilio, M. and C. Borgemeister.  2016.  Taxonomy, Ecology, and Management of Native and Exotic Fruit Fly Species in Africa.  Annual Review of Entomology, 61   : 219-238   .


Affognon, H., Mutungi, C., Sanginga, P. & C. Borgemeister.  2015.  Unpacking postharvest losses in sub-Saharan Africa: A meta-analysis.  World Development, 66   : 49-68   .
Nyasembe V.O., X. Cheseto, F. Kaplan, W.A. Foster, P.E.A. Teal, J. Tumlinson, C. Borgemeister and B. Torto.  2015.  The Invasive American Weed Parthenium hysterophorus Can Negatively Impact Malaria Control in Africa.  PLoS ONE, 10 (9=   : DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0137836   . (Open Access)   Review
Tomberlin, J.K., A. van Huis, M.E. Benbow, H. Jordan, D.A. Astuti, D. Azzollini, I. Banks, V. Bava, C. Borgemeister, J.A. Cammack, R.S. Chapkin, H. Čičková, T.L. Crippen, A. Day, M. Dicke • D.J.W. Drew , C. Emhart, M. Epstein, M. Finke, C.H. Fische.  2015.  Protecting the environment through insect farming as a means to produce protein for.  Protecting the environment through insect farming as a means to produce protein for, 1 (4)   : 307-309   .


Masiga, D.K., Igweta, L., Saini, R., Ochieng’-Odero, J.P. & C. Borgemeister.  2014.  Building Endogenous Capacity for the Management of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Africa: The Pioneering Role of ICIPE.  PLoS NTD, 8 (5)   : e2687   .
Nyasembe, V.O., Tchouassi, D.P., Kirwa, H.K., Foster, W.A.,, Teal, P.E.A., Borgemeister, C. & B. Torto.  2014.  Development and Assessment of Plant-Based Synthetic Odor Baits for Surveillance and Control of Malaria Vectors.  PLoS ONE, 9 (2)   .
Nyasembe, V.O., Teal, P.E.A., Sawa, P., Tumlinson, J.H., Borgemeister, C. & B. Torto.  2014.  Plasmodium falciparum-infection Increases Anopheles gambiae s.s. Attraction To Nectar Sources and Sugar Uptake.  Current Biology, 4 (2)   : 217–221. DOI:   .
Tchouassi, D.P., Bastos, A.D.S., Sole, C.L., Diallo, M., Lutomiah, J., Mutisya, J., Mulwa, F., Borgemeister, C., Sang, R., and B. Torto.  2014.  Population Genetics of Two Key Mosquito Vectors of Rift Valley Fever Virus Reveals New Insights into the Changing Disease Outbreak Patterns in Kenya.  PLoS NTD, 8 (12)   : e3364. doi 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003364   .
Teal, P.E.A., Jones, D., Jones, G., Torto, B., Nyasembe, V., Borgemeister, C., Alborn, H.T., Kaplan, F., Boucias, D., and V.U. Lietze.  2014.  Identification of Methyl Farnesoate from the Hemolymph of Insects.  Journal of Natural Products, :   .


Jaramillo J., Torto B., Mwenda D., Troeger A., Borgemeister C., Poehling, H.-M. & W. Francke.  2013.  Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch.  PLoS ONE, 8 (9)   .
Mwangangi J.M., Mbogo C.M., Orindi B.O., Muturi E.J., Midega J.T., Nzovu J., Gatakaa H., Githure J., Borgemeister C., Keating J. & J.C. Beier.  2013.  Shifts in malaria vector species composition and transmission dynamics along the Kenyan coast over the past 20 years.  Malaria Journal, 12:13   .
Tchouassi, D.P., Sang, R., Sole, C.L., Bastos, A.D.S., Teal, P.E.A., Borgemeister, C. & B. Torto.  2013.  Common Host-derived Chemicals Increase Catches of Disease-transmitting Mosquitoes and can improve early warning systems for Rift Valley Fever Virus.  PLoS NTD, 7 (1)   .


Jaramillo, J., Setamou, M., Muchugu, E., Chabi-Olaye, A., Jaramillo, A., Mukabana, J., Maina, J., Gathara, S. & C. Borgemeister.  2012.  Climate change or urbanization? Impacts on a traditional coffee production system in East Africa over the last 80 years.  PLoS ONE, 8 (1)   .


Ekesi, S. Chabi-Olaye, A., Subramanian, S., & C. Borgemeister.  2011.  Horticultural Pest Management and the African economy: successes, challenges and opportunities in a changing global environment.  Acta Horticulturae, 911   : 165-184   .
Jaramillo, J., Muchugu, E., Vega, F., Davis, A., Borgemeister, C. & A. Chabi-Olaye.  2011.  Some like it hot: the influence and implications of climate change on coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and coffee production in East Africa.  PLoS ONE, 6 (9)   .


24. Jaramillo, J., Chabi-Olaye, A., & C. Borgemeister.  2010.  Temperature-Dependent Development and Emergence Pattern of Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) From Coffee Berries.  Journal of Economic Entomology, 103 (4)   : 1159-1165   .
Ferguson, H.M., Dornhaus, A., Beeche, A., Borgemeister, C., Gottlieb, M., Mulla, M.S., Gimnig, J.E., Fish, D., & G.F. Killeen.  2010.  Ecology: A Prerequisite for Malaria Elimination and Eradication.  PLoS Medicine, 7 (8)   .


Jaramillo, J., Chabi-Olaye, A., Kamonjo, Ch., Vega, F., Poehling, H.M. & C. Borgemeister.  2009.  Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest.  PLoS ONE, 4 (8)   .


Chabi-Olaye, A., Nolte, C., Schulthess, F. & C. Borgemeister.  2007.  Short-term effects of cover crops on stem borers and maize yield in the humid forest of southern Cameroon.  In: Bationo, A.,Waswa, B.,Kihara, J. & J. Kimetu (eds.): Advances in Integrated Soil Fertility Management in sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges and Opportunities. Springer, Heidelberg, New York.   227-239. 


Ebssa, L., Borgemeister, C. & H.-M. Poehling.  2006.  Simultaneous Application of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Predatory Mites to Control Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis.  Biological Control, 39   : 66-74   .
Jaramillo, J., Borgemeister, C. & P. Baker.  2006.  Coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): Searching for sustainable control strategies (review paper).  Bulletin of Entomological Research, 96   : 223-233   .


Hondelmann, P., Borgemeister, C. & H.-M. Poehling.  2005.  Restriction fragment-length polymorphisms of different DNA regions as genetic markers in the hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera: Syrphidae).  Bulletin of Entomological Research, 95   : 349-359   .
Premachandra, D.W.T.S.D., Borgemeister, C., Maiss, E., Knierim, D. & H.-M. Poehling.  2005.  Ceratothripoides claratris, a new vector of a Capsicum chlorosis virus isolate infecting tomatoes in Thailand.  Phytopathology, 95   : 659-663   .


Borgemeister, C..  2004.  The larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), an exotic outbreak pest of stored maize and cassava in Africa.  In: Capinera, J. (eds.): Encyclopedia of Entomology. Kluwer Academic Press .   512-515. 
Schneider, H., Borgemeister, C., Sétamou, M., Affognon, H., Bell, A., Zweigert, M.E., Poehling, H.-M. & F. Schulthess.  2004.  Biological control of the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) by its predator Teretrius nigrescens (Lewis) (Coleoptera: Histeridae) in Togo and Benin.  Biological Control, 30 (2)   : 241-255   .


Neuenschwander, P., Borgemeister, C. & J. Langewald.  2003.  Biological Control in IPM Systems in Africa.  CAB International. Wallingford, UK.
Thoeming, G., Borgemeister, C., Sétamou, M. & H.-M. Poehling.  2003.  Systemic Effects of Neem on Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  Journal of Economic Entomology, 96   : 817-825   .


Borgemeister, C., Adda, C., Sétamou, M., Hell, K., Djomamou, B., Markham, R.H. & K.F. Cardwell.  1998.  Timing of harvest in maize: Effects on post harvest losses due to insects and fungi in central Benin, with particular reference to Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).  Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 69   : 233-242   .
Borgemeister, C., Tchabi, A. & D. Scholz.  1998.  Trees or stores? The origin of migrating Prostephanus truncatus collected in different ecological habitats in southern Benin.  Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 87   : 285-294   .
Scholz, D., Borgemeister, C., Markham, R.H. & H.-M. Poehling.  1998.  Physiological age-grading and ovarian physiology of Prostephanus truncatus.  Physiological Entomology, 23   : 81-90   .


Borgemeister, C., Djossou, F., Adda, C., Schneider, H., Djomamou, B., Azoma, K. & R.H. Markham.  1997.  Establishment, spread and impact of Teretriosoma nigrescens Lewis (Coleoptera: Histeridae), an exotic predator of the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), in south-western Benin.  Environmental Entomology, 26 (6)   : 1405-1415   .


Höller, C., Borgemeister, C., Haardt. H. & W. Powell.  1993.  The relationship between primary parasitoids and hyperparasitoids of cereal aphids: an analysis of field data.  Journal of Animal Ecology, 62   : 12-21   .

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Christian Borgemeister



Ecology and Natural Resources Management